What is Abrasion Resistant Steel Plate?

Abrasion Resistant steel plate is a type of steel that we design in such a way that it resists damage from wear and tear. This damage can be due to grinding and scratching. They are being used in different industries such as construction and military applications. They have become popular due to their durability.

Abrasion happens when materials are rubbed against one another over time. Sanding, grinding, and blasting are examples of intentional abrasion. However, unintentional abrasion can cause component failure, so it is critical to utilize the correct materials to prevent the unplanned dismantling of structures or parts. While steel generally has excellent abrasion resistance, not all steel is created equal. Abrasion-resistant steels are a class of steels made to resist wear.

What does making an AR plate includes?

Like other varieties of steel, Abrasion resistant steel plate is made up of iron ore, carbon, and other alloying elements. The iron ore is heated in a blast furnace, which eliminates any unwanted elements found in the ore. Carbon and other alloying components are added during this time.

Abrasion-resistant steels usually have higher levels of carbon and alloying metals such as chromium and manganese. The greater levels serve to make the steel less prone to wear. Oxidation inhibitors are also added to the molten pool. The molten abrasion-resistant steel is formed, then it is heat treated and cut.

How Does It Work?

One of the characteristics that distinguishes abrasion-resistant steel from other types of steel is its chemical composition. A variety of alloys can be utilized to increase abrasion resistance. Carbon aids in blocking dislocations, raising steel’s hardness and strength. When heated and quenched, the additional carbon helps the steel to create microstructures with improved hardness. Other components can also be added to abrasion-resistant steel to boost its hardness value. To help lessen the detrimental effects of wear, chromium, and manganese are added to abrasion-resistant steels.

Another factor that contributes to the steel’s resistance to abrasion is heat treatment. Abrasion-resistant steel requires a microstructure that allows it to be hard. This is achieved in part by incorporating the necessary alloying components. This, however, needs to be improved to ensure the proper microstructure is created. The steel must also go through a heating and rapid quenching process to generate microstructures like martensite and bainite, which give the steel its high hardness values. When welding or heating abrasion-resistant steels, extreme caution is required. If heated to a high enough temperature, the steel may undergo heating, losing some of its hardness and hence its abrasion resistance.

What Types Are Available?

There are numerous grades of abrasion-resistant steel. Unlike other steels, created with tensile strength and toughness in mind, each grade is generally made to a specific Brinell hardness rating. This is because hardness is one of the most important things to consider when boosting abrasion resistance.

AR400 is a typical type of abrasion-resistant steel. The number “400” in its designation refers to the Brinell hardness value. AR450 and AR500 steel plate are similar to AR400, except for a more excellent Brinell hardness value. The higher AR400, despite having a lower Brinell hardness value, will be more formable. All three abrasion-resistant steels are employed in mining equipment, cement pouring and shaping equipment, excavation equipment, and conveyor systems.

There are also particular abrasion-resistant steel varieties. Hardox 400 and MAS500 AR are tradenames similar to the previously listed grades. There are several Hardox 450 CR grades. The suffix “CR” indicates its cold-rolling. These proprietary grades are used for the previously specified applications.

The Process of Creating AR Plate

AR material is made by quenching and tempering forge steel ingots or blocks. During this process, the grain structure undergoes modification to increase the toughness and promote formability (or to make the material less brittle), resulting in the through-hardening of the material.

The process of quenching and tempering (Q&T) is divided into two stages:

In the first stage, we quench and heat the steel to a high temperature between 1,500 and 1,650 °F. Then we swiftly cool it down using water. This procedure promotes the formation of crystal structures within the steel, enhancing its hardness. Tempering is the process of reheating quenched steel to 300 — 700 °F and then allowing the plate to cool in average air temperatures.

Material reheating disintegrates the crystal structures produced during the quenching process. In contrast, extended cooling allows the crystal structures to rebuild, keeping most of the hardness and strength while increasing overall flexibility.

Abrasion Resistant Steel Plate Applications

Abrasion-resistant steel is ideal for high-wear applications. Material flow or constant motion machines uses AR plates. Industries gain the most from abrasion-resistant steel that requires large-scale material handling, such as mining and construction.

A high carbon content makes steel products harder and more brutal. It also makes abrasion-resistant steel more brittle and unsuitable for all uses. You should not consider Abrasion-resistant steels as structural steel because of their brittle character.

Applications include:

The mining industry uses one of the most common applications of abrasion resistant steel plate. In mining, heavy equipment faces continuous exposure to abrasive minerals, which can damage the parts of the machinery. So, these industries use AR plates to make parts for such machines that require less maintenance. These parts include conveyor belts, buckets, and drill bits.

The construction industry uses AR plates to create parts for heavy machines like excavators, bulldozers, and backhoes. AR plate is an excellent choice for such parts and equipment as they utilize them in difficult terrain and extreme exposure conditions. 

The vehicle and transportation industry also use AR plate for making Equipements for trucks, buses, and trains. These vehicles face continuous exposure to harsh conditions, including high temperatures, corrosion, and abrasion, which can cause damage to their parts. Abrasion resistant steel plate is used to make vehicle parts for engine components, wheels, and axles. These parts can withstand the wear and tear of daily use.

Agricultural industries are also using AR plates. The main usage is in the manufacturing of machinery and equipment for farming and harvesting. In agriculture, equipment such as plows, tillers, and combines exposes directly to abrasive materials and harsh conditions. This makes abrasion resistant steel plate an ideal choice for their components.